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All Four Trimesters Doula Services

Doula Bibliography


A Selected Reference List of Studies Relevant to Labor Support by Doulas and Nurses in a Hospital Setting, (1980 – present)

Compiled by Amy L. Gilliland, M.S. CD(DONA), PhD Candidate, HDFS, UW-Madison, Doula Researcher,


Bianchi, A. L., & Adams, E. D. (2002b). Intrapartum nurses as doulas: Increasing training in supportive behaviors to aid in the reduction of cesarean rates, length of labor and anesthesia/analgesia use. Unpublished raw data.

Callister, L. (1993). The role of the nurse in childbirth: Perceptions of the childbearing woman. Clinical nurse specialist, 7(6), 288-293.

Campero, L., Garcia, C., Diaz, C., Ortiz, O., Reynoso, S., & Langer, A. (1998). "Alone, i wouldn't have known what to do": A qualitative study on social support during labor and delivery in mexico. Social science and medicine, 47(3), 395-403.

Cogan, R., & Spinnato, J. (1988). Social support during premature labor: Effects on labor and the newborn. Journal of psychosomatic obstetrics and gynecology, 8, 209-216.

Corbett, C. A., & Callister, L. C. (2000). Nursing support during labor. Clinical Nursing Research., 9(1), 70-83.

Doulas of North America. (1998). The doula's contribution to modern maternity care.

Durham, J. (2003). Side effects of epidurals: A summary of recent research data. International Journal of Childbirth Education, 18(3), 11-17.

Gagnon, A., Waghorn, K., & Covell, C. (1997). A randomized trial of one-to-one nurse support of women in labor. Birth, 24(2), 71-77.

Gagnon, A. J., & Waghorn, K. (1996). Supportive care by maternity nurses: A work sampling study in an intrapartum unit. Birth., 23(1), 1-6.

Gilliland, A. L. (2002). Beyond holding hands: The role of the modern doula. JOGNN: Journal of obstetrical, gynecological and neonatal nursing, 31(6), 762-769.

Gordon, N. P., Walton, D., McAdam, E., Derman, J., Gallitero, G., & Garrett, L. (1999). Effects of providing hospital-based doulas in health maintenance organization hospitals. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 93(3), 422-426.

Hodnett, E. (1999). Caregiver support for women during childbirth. Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 4.

Hodnett, E., & Osborn, R. (1989). A randomized trial of the effects of monitrice support during labor-mothers views 2 to 4 weeks postpartum. Birth, 16(4), 177-183.

Hodnett, E. D., Lowe, N. K., Hannah, M. E., Willan, A. R., Stevens, B., Weston, J. A., et al. (2002). Effectiveness of nurses as providers of birth labor support in north american hospitals - a randomized controlled trial. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(11), 1373-1381.

Hofmeyr, G. J., Nikodem, V. C., Wolman, W. L., Chalmers, B., & Kramer, T. (1991). Companionship to modify the clinical birth environment: Effects on progress and perceptions of labour, and breastfeeding. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 98, 756-764.

Kennell, J., Klaus, M., McGrath, S., Robertson, S., & Hinkley, C. (1991). Continuous emotional support during labor in a us hospital. JAMA, 265(17), 2197-2201.

Kennell, J., & McGrath, S. (1993). Labor support by a doula for middle income couples: The effect on cesarean rates. Pediatric Research, 33(12A), 58.

Klaus, M., Kennell, J., & Klaus, P. (1993). Mothering the mother: How a doula can help you have a shorter, easier and healthier birth (first ed.). Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.

Klaus, M., Kennell, J., Robertson, S., & Sosa, R. (1986). Effects of social support during parturition on maternal and infant morbidity. British Medical Journal, 293, 585-587.

Landry, S., McGrath, S., Kennell, J., Martin, S., & Steelmaan, L. (1993). The effect of doula support during labor on mother-infant interaction at 2 months (abstract). Pediatric Research, 33, 62.

Langer, A., Campero, L., Garcia, C., & Reynoso, S. (1998). Effects of psychosocial support during labour and childbirth on breastfeeding, medical interventions, and mothers' wellbeing in a mexican public hospital: A randomised clinical trial. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 105(10), 1056-1063.

Madi, B., Sandall, J., Bennett, R., & MacLeod, C. (1999). Effects of female relative support in labor: A randomized controlled trial. Birth, 26(1), 4-8.

Martin, S., Landry, S., Steelman, L., Kennell, J., & McGrath, S. (1998). The effect of doula support during labor on mother-infant interaction at two months. Infant Behavior and Development, 21, 556.

McNiven, P., Hodnett, E., & O'Brien-Pallas, L. L. (1992). Supporting women in labor - a work sampling study of the activities of labor and delivery nurses. Birth-Issues in Perinatal Care, 19(1), 3-7.

Merton, C. (2000). Problematizing caregiving in childbirth: The case of doula (labor support) practice. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association Meeting, Washington, D.C.

Meyer, B., Arnold, J., & Pascali-Bonaro, D. (2001). Social support by doulas during labor and the early postpartum period. Hospital Physician, 57-65.

Scott, Berkowitz, G., & Klaus, M. (1999). A comparison of intermittent and continuous support during labor: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 180(5), 1054-1059.

Simkin, P. (1991). Just another day in a woman’s life: Women’s long term perceptions of their first birth experience. Birth, 18(4), 203-210.

Simkin, P. (1992). Just another day in a woman’s life? Part ii: Nature and consistency of women’s long term perceptions of their first birth experience. Birth, 19(2), 64-81.

Sosa, R., Kennell, J., Klaus, M., Robertson, S., & Urrutia, J. (1980). The effect of a supportive companion on perinatal problems, length of labor, and mother-infant interaction. New England Journal of Medicine, 303(11), 597-600.

Tumblin, A., & Simkin, P. (2001). Pregnant women's perceptions of their nurse's role during labor and delivery. Birth, 28(1), 52-56.

Wolman, W. L., Chalmers, B., Hofmeyr, G. J., & Nikodem, V. C. (1993). Postpartum depression and companionship in the clinical birth environment: A randomized, controlled study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 168(5), 1388- 1393.